The veiled goal of all we’ve done to this point is to be prepared to take on a more suitable basis for creating a web-site, and that is through server-side scripting. This is the method of running a programming language on a web-server to control the HTML that is sent to the client’s browser. In this method, we can re-use one piece of code repeatedly throughout many pages.
The language we’re going to use in our example is PHP. It is a loosely typed language (rules aren’t strict) and isn’t particularly difficult to set-up or understand.
In order to run a server-side language, you need two things: The language installation, and an application server (a program to act as the server to run the language). We’ll be using PHP and Apache. The easiest way to install these is through a packaged installation such as WAMP.
WAMP stands for Windows Apache, MySQL and PHP. MySQL is database software which we’ll use one we get a handle on PHP. You can install all these individually, but the installation of MySQL can have some quirks.
Once installed, you can run the WAMP server and a tray icon will appear on your taskbar. Clicking it will give you several options. The www directory is where all your files will go. Make sure all your services are started (the icon should be white, but you can click Restart All Services to be sure), then open your web browser and enter into the address bar:
This should bring up a page with WAMP information if you have it installed correctly.
In your www folder, delete index.php and create replace it with a blank index.php. Copy over the contents of index.html and open localhost in your browser again. We should see our page.
What we need to do now is segment the page. We will be using includes to do this. Though there are object-oriented ways that are generally an improvement, it goes beyond our scope and would serve at this point only to confuse.
Create a folder called “includes” and in it a file called “top.php”. This will contain our doctype declaration and opening down to the header. Copy this code and put it in top.php
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no" ?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/main.css" />
Do not copy in the title tag. Save and close the file. Create a new file called middle.php and paste this code into it
</head> <body> <div id="container"> <div id="header"> <h1>Web-Design HQ</h1> </div> <div id="main"> <div id="menu"> Menus </div> <div id="article">
Save and close the file, and make one final file called bottom.php and paste this code into it.
</div> </div> </div> </body> </html>
Now, back in the index.php file, we can use our other files to easily insert our page design.
<?php include_once('includes/top.php'); ?> <title>Main Page</title> <?php include_once('includes/middle.php'); ?> This is the index page <?php include_once('includes/bottom.php'); ?>
That’s all that needs to be in index.php now.
The <?php indicator denotes the start of PHP code. You cannot place HTML within this.
include_once is a method. A method is a reusable piece of code, in this instance, to import data from another file.
So in plain terms
-Include the top part of the page up until the <head> tag
-Insert anything specific that needs to be in there, such as the title
-Include the middle section up until where we put our content
-Write our content
-Include the bottom part to close any remaining tags
Now any change we make to any of the included files will apply to every page that includes them. This significantly reduces redundant code and time wasted on repetitious changes.
Part 5 will address the basics of actual programming in PHP.